PD200 - 60W Voltage Amplifier
|Output Voltage Ranges||100 Vp-p||150 Vp-p||200 Vp-p|
|RMS Current||1.2 Amps||0.91 Amps||0.57 Amps|
|Pulse Current||10.0 Amps||10.0 Amps||10.0 Amps|
|Power Bandwidth||470 kHz||310 kHz||230 kHz|
|Slew Rate||150 V/us|
|Signal Bandwidth||680 kHz|
|Max Power||60 W Dissipation|
|Noise||665 uV RMS (10 uF Load, 0.03 Hz to 1 MHz)|
|Protection||Continuous short-circuit, thermal|
|Voltage Monitor||1/20 V/V (BNC)|
|Current Monitor||1 V/A (BNC)|
|Analog Input||+/-10V (BNC, Zin = 27k)|
|Output Connectors||LEMO 00, LEMO 0B, Screw Terminals, BNC|
|Power Supply||90 Vac to 250 Vac|
|Environment||0 - 40 C (32-104 F), Non-condensing humidity|
|Dimensions||275 x 141 x 64 mm (10.8 x5.5 x 2.5 in)|
|Weight||1kg (2.2 lb)|
The PD200 is a high bandwidth, low noise linear amplifier for driving piezoelectric actuators. The output voltage range can be unipolar, bipolar, or asymmetric from 50V to 200V. Up to ±200V can be achieved in the bridged configuration. The PD200 can drive any load impedance including unlimited capacitive loads such as stack actuators; standard piezoelectric actuators; two wire benders; and three-wire piezoelectric benders requiring a bias voltage.
Configuration options include the voltage range, polarity, and output current. The voltage range can also be limited by two user-accessible potentiometers. The PD200 is suited to a wide range of applications including electro-optics, ultrasound, vibration control, nanopositioning systems, and piezoelectric motors.
There are four output connectors including Lemo 00, Lemo 0B, BNC, and screw terminals that allow the direct connection to almost any commercially available piezoelectric actuator. A rear-panel connector also provides a temperature output, overload monitor, and external shutdown input.
|Stack Actuators||50V to 200V|
|Plates and Tubes||up to +/-100V|
|Two Wire Benders||up to +/-100V|
|Three Wire Benders||0 to 200V with 200V bias|
|Three Wire Benders||+/-100V with +/-100V bias|
Output Voltage Range
The desired output voltage range is specified when ordering. The default output range is 0V to +200V (PD200-V0,200). The available voltage ranges and associated current limits are listed below.
|Voltage Range||RMS Current||Peak Current||Order Code|
|0 to +200||0.57A||2A||PD200-V0,200|
|0 to +150||0.91A||2A||PD200-V0,150|
|0 to +100||1.20A||2A||PD200-V0,100|
|0 to +50||1.20A||2A||PD200-V0,50|
|-50 to +150||0.57A||2A||PD200-V50,150|
|-50 to +100||0.91A||2A||PD200-V50,100|
|-50 to +50||1.20A||2A||PD200-V50,50|
|-100 to +100||0.57A||2A||PD200-V100,100|
|-100 to +50||0.91A||2A||PD200-V100,50|
The PD200 has a peak and average current limit as described in Table 1. The RMS current limit defines the maximum frequency that is achievable with a capacitive load. This topic is discussed in “Power Bandwidth”. During short-circuit the output current is limited to the rated maximum. The peak current can be drawn for up to five milliseconds before the output is disabled for three seconds. The average current limit has a time-constant of 30 milliseconds and is reset 100 milliseconds after a previous current pulse. This behaviour is described in “Overload and Shutdown”.
The output voltage range can be restricted to an arbitrary positive and negative value using two potentiometers accessed from a pair of holes on the bottom panel. By gently turning the potentiometers clockwise with a 2-mm flat-head screwdriver, the full voltage range becomes available. The voltage range is reduced by turning the potentiometers anti-clockwise. The hole closest to the front panel controls the negative voltage range while the rear hole controls the positive range.
Pulse Current Option
For applications that require a high peak current, the peak current limit can be increased to 10 Amps by appending the order code with “-PULSE”, e.g. “PD200-V0,200-PULSE”. In this configuration, the average current limit remains the same; however, the peak current limit is increased to 8 Amps and the maximum pulse duration is reduced to the time listed in Table 2. The voltage span is the peak-to-peak output voltage range, e.g. the voltage span for the -50V to +150V range is 200V.
|Voltage Span||Pulse Current||Pulse Time|
With a capacitive load, the peak load current for a sine-wave is
where Vpp is the peak-to-peak output voltage, C is the load capacitance and f is the frequency. Given a peak current limit Ipk, the maximum frequency is therefore . However, the PD200 is protected by both peak and average current limits. The average current Iav+ is defined as the average positive or negative current. For example, for a sine-wave . Therefore, for a sine-wave . Since the average current limit of the PD200 is fixed at Iav+=0.26, the maximum frequency sine-wave, or power bandwidth of the PD200, is equal to The above result is true for any periodic waveform such as triangular signals. The RMS current for a sine-wave can also be related to the average current, . The power bandwidths for a range of load capacitance values are listed below.
|Load||Peak to Peak Voltage|
|No Load||230 kHz||310 kHz||470 kHz||520 kHz|
|10 nf||130 kHz||173 kHz||260 kHz||520 kHz|
|30 nf||43 kHz||58 kHz||87 kHz||173 kHz|
|100 nf||13 kHz||17 kHz||26 kHz||52 kHz|
|300nf||4.3 kHz||5.8 kHz||8.7 kHz||17 kHz|
|1uf||1.3 kHz||1.7 kHz||2.6 kHz||5.2 kHz|
|3uf||430 Hz||570 Hz||870 Hz||1.7 kHz|
|10uf||130 Hz||170 Hz||230 Hz||520 Hz|
|30uf||43 Hz||57 Hz||87 Hz||170 Hz|
Small Signal Bandwidth
|No Load||684 kHz|
|10 nf||759 kHz|
|30 nf||720 kHz|
|100 nf||388 kHz|
|300 nf||172 kHz|
|1 uf||60 kHz|
|3 uf||21 kHz|
|10 uf||6.4 kHz|
|30 uf||2.4 kHz|
|110 uf||940 Hz|
The output noise contains a low frequency component (0.03 Hz to 20 Hz) that is independent of the load capacitance; and a high frequency component (20 Hz to 1 MHz) that is inversely related to the load capacitance. Many manufacturers quote only the AC noise measured by a multimeter (20 Hz to 100 kHz) which is usually a gross underestimate.
The noise is measured with an SR560 low-noise amplifier (Gain = 1000), oscilloscope, and Agilent 34461A Voltmeter. The low-frequency noise is plotted in Figure 5. The RMS value is 650 uV with a peak-to-peak voltage of 4.3 mV. The noise level is approximately equal to the least significant bit of a 16-bit digital-to-analog converter.
The high frequency noise (20 Hz to 1 MHz) is listed in the table below versus load capacitance. The total noise from 0.03 Hz to 1 MHz can be found by square summing the RMS values, that is
|Load Cap.||Bandwidth||HF Noise (RMS)||Total Noise (RMS)|
|No Load||684 kHz||240 uV||698 uV|
|10 nf||759 kHz||241 uV||699 uV|
|30 nF||720 kHz||243 uV||699 uV|
|100 nF||388 kHz||234 uV||696 uV|
|300 nF||172 kHz||171 uV||677 uV|
|1 uF||60 kHz||133 uV||668 uV|
|3 uF||21 kHz||115 uV||665 uV|
|10 uF||6.4 kHz||112 uV||665 uV|
|30 uF||2.4 kHz||98 uV||662 uV|
|110 uF||940 Hz||85 uV||660 uV|
Input and Offset Configuration
The input stage is normally non-inverting; however, it can be configured as inverting by changing LK14 and LK15 to their "B" position. The default jumper position is "A" which is marked with a white bar on PCB overlay. The amplifier can be supplied with an inverting input by appending the order code with -INV.
|Input Configuration||Code||Link Positions|
|Non-inverting (default)||LK14 and LK15 both "A"|
|Inverting||-INV||LK14 and LK15 both "B"|
The input offset source is also configurable. When LK21 is in the "B" position, the offset is derived from the on-board trim-pot R15, which is adjustable from zero to full-scale. The default configuration for LK21 is in the "A" position where the offset voltage is derived from the front-panel potentiometer.
The standard offset voltage range is from zero volts to full-scale; however, for applications that require negative offset voltages, LK13 can be moved from the "A" to "B" position. In the "B" position, the offset range is from -100V to full-scale.
|Offset Configuration||Code||Link Positions|
|0V to +200V Range (default)||LK13 "A" Position|
|-100V to +200V Range||-OR2||LK13 "B" Position|
|Front panel source (default)||LK21 "A" Position|
|PCB trim-pot source||-OS2||LK21 "B" Position|
In bridged mode, two amplifiers are connected in series to double the output voltage range and power. To obtain +/-200V at the load, the amplifiers are configured as illustrated below. Both amplifiers are configured in the +/-100V range and the lower amplifier is also inverting. A +/-5V signal applied to both inputs will develop +/-200V at the output.
The Shutdown indicator will illuminate during a shutdown caused by an average current overload. During shutdown, the amplifier output current is limited to a few mA and may float to the high or low voltage rail if the load impedance is high or capacitive.
When the amplifier is turned on, the overload protection circuit is engaged by default and will take approximately three seconds to reset.
An actuator can be connected to the amplifier by either screw terminals or the LEMO 00, LEMO 0B, or BNC connectors. The recommended connectors are listed below. The full connector part number will depend on the diameter of the cable and desired strain relief.
|BNC||Any BNC Connector||TE||1-1634613-0|
The LEMO 0B connector is recommended in high power applications. Preassembled LEMO cable assemblies are available from
The plug-in screw terminal has contacts for the output voltage, ground, and the positive and negative high-voltage supply rails, which are useful when driving piezoelectric bender actuators.
Bender actuators can be driven with a single bias voltage, for example 200 V, or bipolar bias voltages, for example +/-100 V. The 200 V unipolar configuration is illustrated below.
The PD200 enclosure has a side air intake and rear exhaust. These vents should not be obstructed.
The PD200 amplifiers can be rack-mounted in a three channel arrangement as shown below. The rack panel (19-inch X 2U) is supplied separately and requires some user assembly to mount between one and three channels. The rack order code is PD200-RackPanel.
PiezoDrive amplifiers are guaranteed for a period of 3 months. The warranty does not cover damage due to misuse or incorrect user configuration of the amplifier.